The first diabetic patient to receive insulin on January 11, 1922, was a 14-year-old boy Leonard Thompson. After the first injection of 15 ml of insulin, no significant changes in the patient's condition were noted, the level of glucose in the blood and urine decreased slightly. The second injection was performed on January 23rd, and, as a result, the patient's blood glucose level returned to normal, the content of glucose and ketones in the urine decreased, and the boy himself noted an improvement in his health.
One of the first patients to receive insulin was the daughter of the head of the US Supreme Court, Elizabeth Hughes Gossett. Before the start of insulin therapy, she had diabetes for 4 years, and the treatment that helped her survive consisted in a very severe diet (about 400 kcal per day). On insulin therapy, Elizabeth lived to 73 years old and gave birth to three children.
In 1923, the Nobel Committee awarded the Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Banting and Macleod (his mentor and professor, one of the leading experts in carbohydrate metabolism), just 18 months after the first presentation of the medicine at a meeting of the Association of American Physicians. This decision exacerbated the already difficult relationship between scientists since Banting believed that Macleod's contribution to the invention of insulin was greatly exaggerated, according to Banting, the prize should be divided between him and his assistant Best. To restore justice, Banting shared his prize with Best, and Macleod with biochemist Collip.
The patent for the discovery of insulin, owned by Banting, Best, and Collip, scientists sold for $ 3 to the University of Toronto. In August 1922, a cooperation agreement was signed with the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Co., which helped to establish the production of the medicine on an industrial scale.
More than 90 years have passed since the invention of insulin. Insulin is a unique creation of the human mind. It is the only thing in the entire history of civilization, for the invention of which three Nobel Prizes were awarded, moreover, in different years. The preparations of this hormone are being improved, since 1982, patients have already received human insulin and in the 90s analogs of human insulin appeared - medicines with different durations of action, but we must remember the people who were at the origins of the creation of this drug, which saves the lives of millions of people every day.